Laws of Nature
Scientists learn more about the Universe by discovering the natural laws that
govern the behavior of matter & energy and the relationship between them.
- Occam’s Razor – an English philosopher, William of Occam established the guiding rules/laws behind the natural laws. (Known as Occam’s Razor. (Razor = proceed to simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power, also the simplest available theory need not be most accurate.)
Born: 1285, Ockham Civil Parish, borough of Guildford, Surrey, UK
Died: 10th April 1347, Munich Germany
- Isaac Newton – in addition of his law of universal gravitation to establish three laws of motion that govern the movement of all objects larger than an atom, unless they are moving at close to the speed of light.
Born: 4th January 1643, Woolsthorpe Manor House, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, UK
Died: 31st March 1727, Kensington, London, UK
- Albert Einstein – theory of relativity extended Newton’s laws to include objects that are moving at near-light speed, that matter can be transformed into energy according to the famous equation E=mc2 (E=energy / m= mass / c= speed of light)
Born: 14th March 1879, Ulm, Germany
Died: 18th April 1955, New Jersey, USA
- James Clerk Maxwell – Four mathematical equations invented by a Scottish physicist described a remarkable development with electricity & magnetism, and were used to come up the creation of the electromagnetic spectrum (diagram).
James Clerk Maxwell
Born: 13th June 1831, Edinburgh
Died: 5th November 1879, Cambridge
- Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – in 1931, an Indian astronomer proved that no white dwarf star could have a mass of more than 1.4 times the mass of our Sun, he created that any stars exceed this mass will explode as supernovae rather than shrink to become white dwarf stars.
Born: 19th October 1910, Lahore, Pakistan
Died: 21st August 1995, Chicago, USA
- Edwin Powell Hubble – an American astronomer proved that Hubble’s law, first stated in 1929, the speed at which galaxy appears to be moving away from us is related measurement to its distance – most distant galaxies are moving the fastest.
Edwin Powell Hubble
Born: 20th November 1889, Missouri, USA
Died: 28th September 1953, San Marino, USA