Small Stars

  • depending on their colour, small stars of low brightness are called white, red, or black dwarves.
  • red dwarves are bigger than the planet Jupiter, but smaller than medium-sized star, the Sun. they glow faintly with less than 5 percent of the Sun’s brightness.

  • no red dwarf can be seen with the naked eye – not even the nearest star to the Sun, the red dwarf Proxima Centauri.
  • white dwarf are the last stage in the life of a medium-sized star. Although they are even smaller then red dwarf, they contained the same amount of matter as the Sun.

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  • the star 40 Eridani is really three dwarf stars – a white dwarf and a red dwarf circling a small orange star, which can be seen with the naked star.

40 Eridani
Nearby trinary (three-star) system in the constellation Eridanus.
40 Components B and C orbit around each other and, as a pair orbit the primary,
which lies about 400 astronomical units away.
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  • brown dwarves are cool space objects, a little bigger than Jupiter. They formed in the same way as other stars, but were not big enough to start shining properly – they just glow very faintly with the heat left over from their formation.

The Pup star (Sirius B) and the Dog Star (Sirius A)
Sirius B is smaller than Earth but 98% massive bright than as the Sun,
a 150-pound person stending on Sirius B’s  surface would weight 50 million pounds!
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  • Black dwarves are very small, cold, dead star. They were either not big enough to star shining, or they have burnt all their nuclear fuel and stopped glowing.

Here an example of  Black dwarf.

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