Scientists learn more about the Universe by discovering the natural laws that
govern the behavior of matter & energy and the relationship between them.
Laws of Nature
- Occam’s Razor – an English philosopher, William of Occam (born 1285 – died 1347), established the guiding rules/laws behind the natural laws. (Known as Occam’s Razor. (Razor = proceed to simpler theories until simplicity can be traded for greater explanatory power, also the simplest available theory need not be most accurate.)
- Isaac Newton – in addition of his law of universal gravitation to establish three laws of motion that govern the movement of all objects larger than an atom, unless they are moving at close to the speed of light.
- Albert Einstein – theory of relativity extended Newton’s laws to include objects that are moving at near-light speed, that matter can be transformed into energy according to the famous equation E=mc2 (E=energy / m= mass / c= speed of light)
- James Clerk Maxwell – Four mathematical equations invented by a Scottish physicist (born 1831 – died 1879) described a remarkable development with electricity & magnetism, and were used to come up the creation of the electromagnetic spectrum. (diagram).
- Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – in 1931, an Indian astronomer (born 1910 – died 1995) proved that no white dwarf star could have a mass of more than 1.4 times the mass of our Sun, he created that any stars exceed this mass will explode as supernovae rather than shrink to become white dwarf stars.
- Edwin Powell Hubble – an American astronomer (born 1889 – died 1953)proved that Hubble’s law, first stated in 1929, the speed at which galaxy appears to be moving away from us is related measurement to its distance – most distant galaxies are moving the fastest.
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